Management of Semi-Arid Ecosystems
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Sketch map for the definition of environmental groundwater depth. Table 1 Typical achievements of environmental groundwater depth. Principles Vegetation tends to grow in its suitable habitat where it can be indicated by a high appearance frequency of the vegetation, and the appearance frequency will decrease with the decreased habitat suitability. Applications The middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River were monitored for two years and and data were collected for groundwater, vegetation plots, and soil profiles.
Applications Based on in situ observations of groundwater depth and the length, width, and fresh weight of 50 leaves of selected plants in July , the response of vegetation communities was investigated by altering groundwater depth. Principles Remote sensing provides a robust and spatially explicit means to assess land cover and its temporal changes. Principles Soil moisture is one of the most important components of soil and a basic condition on which vegetation relies for survival.
Applications In the lower reaches of the Tarim River China , the variability of soil moisture content and the relationship between soil moisture content, groundwater depth, and vegetation were analyzed using the methods of coefficient of variation, Pearson correlation, and regression, respectively. Figure 2. Discussion on Environmental Groundwater Regime Groundwater level usually experiences diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual fluctuations, which should be incorporated into the design of environmental groundwater depth. Author Contributions Conceptualization, F.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Botai C. Reynolds J. Global desertification: Building a science for dryland development. Green T. Beneath the surface of global change: Impacts of climate change on groundwater. Ashraf B.
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Table of Contents
Naumburg E. Phreatophytic vegetation and groundwater fluctuations: A review of current research and application of ecosystem response modeling with an emphasis on Great Basin vegetation.
Groundwater-dependent ecosystems: Recent insights from satellite and field-based studies. Earth Syst. Cui Y. Ground Water. MacKay H. Protection and management of groundwater-dependent ecosystems: Emerging challenges and potential approaches for policy and management. Zhao W.
Review of several problems on the study of eco-hydrological processes in arid zones. Rohde M. A global synthesis of managing groundwater dependent ecosystems under sustainable groundwater policy. Yuan C. Determination of critical groundwater depth. Zhang C. A study on the ecological groundwater table in the North China plain. Jilin Univ. Liao Z. Dominant critical water level of groundwater and its determing method. Water Resour. Hydropower Eng. Horton J. Responses of riparian trees to interannual variation in ground water depth in a semi-arid river basin.
Plant Cell Environ. Feng Q. Using the concept of ecological groundwater level to evaluate shallow groundwater resources in hyperarid desert regions. Arid Land. Hao X. Assessment of the groundwater threshold of desert riparian forest vegetation along the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River, China. Ecological response and hydrological mechanism of desert riparian forest in inland river, northwest of China. Jin X. Arid Land Res. Elmore A. Decline in alkali meadow vegetation cover in California: The effects of groundwater extraction and drought.
Chavez R. Arid Environ. The variation in soil moisture and the appropriate groundwater table for desert riparian forest along the Lower Tarim River. Zolfaghar S. The influence of depth-to-groundwater on structure and productivity of Eucalyptus woodlands. Coudun C. The derivation of species response curves with Gaussian logistic regression is sensitive to sampling intensity and curve characteristics. Shang H. An ecology-oriented exploitation mode of groundwater resources in the northern Tianshan Mountains, China.
Influence of groundwater depth on species composition and community structure in the transition zone of Cele oasis. Bean W. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Scott R. Multiyear riparian evapotranspiration and groundwater use for a semiarid watershed. Saidi S. Estimating tree density with the Perpendicular Vegetation Index: Application to the tree savannahs of northern Tanzania. Bois Et For. Des Trop. Ren H. Using negative soil adjustment factor in soil-adjusted vegetation index SAVI for aboveground living biomass estimation in arid grasslands.
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Shen L. Suitability of the normalized difference vegetation index and the adjusted transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index for spatially characterizing loggerhead shrike habitats in North American mixed prairie. Singh C. Evaluating control of various hydrological factors on selection of groundwater-level monitoring networks in irrigated areas using a geospatial approach. Gangopadhyay S. Evaluation of ground water monitoring network by principal component analysis.
More accurate monitoring and metering is critical to governments who use water markets to cost-effectively provide for the environment. Water trusts and government entities in the Pacific Northwest and Australia, for example, are buying or leasing water through markets and achieving better environmental outcomes at less opportunity cost to consumptive uses Garrick, et al.
Improvements that will further develop water markets to better manage drought include: infrastructure improvements to allow more flexible interbasin trading, and streamlining the approval process for trades through mechanisms such as zone-based trading ratios or preapproved trades that identify and account for third-party effects Hanak, et al. Finally, one of the great challenges in effectively addressing drought is that many diverse and geographically dispersed interests are involved. As outlined above, opportunities exist to reduce the impacts of drought through the reallocation of water across space and time via inter- and intrabasin transfers, water banking, and from greater storage through aquifer use.
Experience shows, however, that the benefits are less often realized when coordinated actions across state, national, and catchment borders are required, and when cooperation across diverse water use interests such as irrigation and the environment are required. Institutions that facilitate information sharing and involve representation from key stakeholders can, however, significantly improve prospects for cooperative, multiparty adaptations to drought. Spain has some of the best examples of information systems, information sharing, and negotiation processes that facilitate drought mitigation.
This involves both quantitative analysis of measures that minimize drought impacts using integrated river basin models to monitor drought risk and the effects of specific mitigation strategies, and the sharing of this information with drought management committees comprised of diverse stakeholders from key economic and environmental water interests. Dunivin, W. Water, Environment, and Technology , Easter, K. Markets for Water: Potential and Performance. Galloway, D. Detection of aquifer system compaction and land subsidence using interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Antelope Valley, Mojave Desert, California.
Water Resources Research , 34 , — Garrick, D. Environmental water governance in federal rivers: the opportunities and limits of the subsidiarity principle in Australia's River Murray.
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Water Policy, In-press. Groisman, P. Prolonged dry episodes over the conterminous United States: new tendencies emerging during the last 40 years. Journal of Climate, 21 , — Hanak, E. Howitt, R. Drought, Jobs, and Controversy: Revisiting University of California Giannini Foundation. Hughes, N. Management of irrigation water storages: carryover rights and capacity sharing. Kenway, S. Energy use in the provision and consumption of urban water in Australia and New Zealand. Kirby, M. Lord, W. Water Resources Bulletin, 31 5 , Schwabe, K. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Publishing.
Normalized soil respiration rates between sites differed significantly for all soil types and were always greater for soils incubated under more mesic, but cooler, conditions. Total soil C did not change significantly during the experiment, but estimates suggest that significant portions of the rapidly cycling C pool were lost. While long-term decreases in aboveground and belowground detrital inputs may ultimately be greater than decreased soil respiration, the initial response to increased temperature and decreased precipitation in these systems is a decrease in annual soil C efflux.
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